KOUGEI-EXPO

全国くらしの工芸展 11/25(金)〜11/27(日) 会場:サンドーム福井

木竹品

都城大弓

Miyakonojo Bows

木竹品

宮崎県

Miyazaki

鹿児島成(なり)の流れをくむ大弓で、江戸時代後期には盛んに作られていたことが記録に残っています。明治時代に入り、川内地区から来住した楠見親子が多くの弓作りの職人を養成しました。豊富な原材料に恵まれたこともあって、昭和初期には、東アジアにまで製品が売られるような大産地になりました。
戦後、低迷期がありましたが、最盛期には30人近くの弓作りの職人が活躍していました。現在でもわが国で唯一の産地として竹弓の9割を生産しています。

Closely connected with the history of Kagoshima, there are documents verifying that just after the middle of the 19th century, the making of Miyakonojo bows was a thriving local craft and by the end of the century, many bow makers had been instructed in the craft by two generations of the locally residing Kusumi family. Blessed with plentiful supplies of locally obtainable raw materials, the craft developed and by the 1920s bows were being sold in East Asia. Although there was a fall in demand after World War II, at the height of production there were some 30 bow makers active in the area. It is now the country's only production center for bows, 90% of all bamboo bows being made here.Following an established pattern, there are seven joints of bamboo on the forward face and six on the inner face. Although the shape may differ according to who makes it, a good bow is thought to be one with a perfect balance between its upper and lower portions, and one to which consideration has been given to its center of gravity and the distribution of weight after the arrow has been shot. With 9 government recognized Master Craftsmen among them, there are now 15 people employed by 11 firms continuing this long tradition.

紀州へら竿

Kishu Herazao

木竹品

和歌山県

Wakayama

紀州へら竿は、竿師の高い技術力で作られるへら鮒用の釣り竿です。
その製造技法は、明治10年代に大阪市で確立し、その後、原材料である高野竹(スズ竹)の産地に近い和歌山県橋本市に根付いて今日に至ります。昭和初期からのへら鮒釣りブームもあり、へら竿づくりは定着し、以後多くの釣り師に愛されてきました。

Kishu Herazao are fishing rods for catching crucian carp created by master rod craftsmen.
The production method was established in Osaka in the 1880s, and afterwards production was moved closer to the production area of the raw material used, sasamorpha borealis bamboo, and it became established there in Hashimoto City, Wakayama where it continues to the present day. In the 1920s and 30s, Japan experienced a crucian carp fishing boom, and herazao fishing rods became established, and they remain loved by fishermen today.

大阪泉州桐簞笥

Osaka Senshu Paulownia Chests

木竹品

大阪府

Osaka

農業をするかたわらに行われた、近所で採れるキハダやキリの木を使った、箱等の簡単な指物作りは、江戸時代中期に始まったと言われています。江戸時代後期から明治時代にかけて一大産地を形成しました。
キリの柾目(まさめ)を活かし、木釘と各種組み接ぎ(くみつぎ)技法を凝らした組立から、磨き着色に至るまで、伝統技法を脈々と伝えています。

Sometime during the 18th century, farmers started making boxes and other simple pieces of cabinetry during slack times of the year, using locally obtained paulownia (Paulownia Sieb. et Zucc.) and cork-tree (Phellodendron Rupr.). This "cottage industry" grew in stature by leaps and bounds after the middle of the 19th century and is still thriving. The traditions of this craft are kept alive by making full use of the quarter-saw boards of the paulownia, which are pieced together using wooden pins and a variety of joints, and then the surfaces are polished and lightly colored.Because the paulownia is air-dried and seasoned for one to two years prior to being made up, impurities tend not to appear on the surface. Solid boards of paulownia in excess of 20 mm thick are used, especially for the drawer fronts and doors. The wood for this is quarter-sawn in order to express the tightly packed grain of the wood and the finishing of these boards is particularly fine and demands a great deal of skill. There are 9 firms with 72 employees, and 18 nationally recognized Master Craftsmen who are protecting the time-honored techniques of a piece of furniture that, if treated well, should last for a hundred years or more.

大阪唐木指物

Osaka Fine Cabinetry

木竹品

大阪府

Osaka

唐木製品は、奈良時代の遣唐使によって持ち帰られました。珍しい木が使われていたため、この木を唐の木、唐木と呼んだことが唐木指物のいわれです。
江戸時代に入ると唐木材はすべて長崎に運び込まれ、大阪の薬種問屋がこれを引き受けていました。大阪の唐木製品は手作りで、伝統的な技術・技法を用いて、現在の生活様式に合うように工夫、改良されています。

Fine rarewood cabinetry was brought to Japan by the envoys who visited Tang dynasty China, hence the name of these woods in Japanese is literally "woods of Tang" or karaki. During the Edo period (1600-1868) when foreign intrusions were mostly shunned, rarewoods come into the country via Nagasaki and they were distributed through a wholesaler of medicines in Osaka. Currently, the same rarewoods and traditional techniques are being used to make not only traditional articles but also ones consistent with today's life-style such as cabinets, tables and boxes. The lasting qualities and general acknowledgment which fine pieces of furniture and cabinetry made of such rarewoods as sandalwood and ebony command is unfailing.The band of craftsmen skilled in working these woods is small, now numbering 170, with 21 nationally recognized Master Craftsmen among them. There are 43 firms situated in a number of areas making boxes, stands, desks and other finely crafted pieces of cabinetry.

大阪欄間

Osaka Transoms

木竹品

大阪府

Osaka

大阪欄間の始まりは17世紀初期で、大阪府内の聖神社や四天王寺等にその伝統技法のもととなる技術がみられます。
その後、江戸時代中期には商家を中心とした一般の住宅の茶の間、客間等の鴨居(かもい)の上に、光を取り入れたり風通しを良くするという実用性と、品格を表すための室内装飾として取り付けられました。

The origins of this craft date back to the beginning of the 17th century and the traditional woodworking skills that can be seen at Osaka's Hijiri Shrine and Shiteno-ji temple. Gradually during the 18th century, transoms were mainly introduced into merchant's houses not only for practical reasons of ventilation and lighting but also as a decorative element capable of raising the quality of interior space, especially in rooms where guest would be received.There are many types of transom. The bold carving of one type helps to bring out the best qualities of the grain of the special Yaku cedar from which it is made. A wonderful balance between the grain of paulownia and open-work in the design is achieved in another. Some are strict bars or a repeat of one element, others are grills. Still others are not much more than a frame but all are pieces of decoration with a function. Despite the fall in the number of traditional houses being built, they make screens, picture frames, and there are still 22 firms with 77 employees and 21 nationally recognized Master Craftsmen working on this fitting that is so special to the Japanese house interior.

京指物

Kyoto Joinery

木竹品

京都府

Kyoto

始まりは平安時代に遡ります。室町時代以後には専門の指物師が現れ、茶道文化の確立とともに、京指物も発展しました。
無垢板(むくいた)を用いた高級和家具の調度指物と、キリ、スギ、クワ、ケヤキ等の木の素材を生かした挽物(ひきもの)、曲物、板物等の茶道具指物があります。

Although this craft dates back to the Heian period (794-1185), specialist cabinet makers did not appear until during the Muromachi period (1392-1573), when this form of joinery developed in step with the ceremonial drinking of tea. Beside a range of the finest traditional household furniture made in solid wood, many pieces of turnery, bentwood work and items made from boards are also fashioned from such woods as paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), mulberry (Morus) and zelkova (Zelkova serrata).Perhaps the most representative of the woods used is paulownia. Being both moisture and heat resistant, products made of this wood represent the very best in household storage. Great care is taken with its preparation by ensuring that it is well seasoned and that any impurities are removed before the wood is worked. Apart from the many items which are made for use in association with the tea ceremony, some very finely crafted chest-of-drawers and wardrobes are also made. Freestanding shelves are also produced, sometimes for the display of fine china. In all, there are now 17 firms employing 80 people, 10 of whom are government recognized Master Craftsmen, all dedicated to sustaining this craft.

江戸指物

Edo Joinery

木竹品

東京都

Tokyo

江戸時代、徳川幕府は多くの職人を全国から呼び寄せて、神田・日本橋周辺に、大工町、鍛冶町、紺屋町などの職人町をつくり手工業を発達させました。
江戸時代の中頃には消費生活の発達につれて、大工職の仕事は楢物師(ひものし)、戸障子師、宮殿師などの職業に分かれていきました。その一つが指物師で、現在に続いています。

Many skilled individuals were encouraged to live and work in Edo (Tokyo) by the Shogunate right from the outset of the Edo period (1600-1868), and craft industries developed as a result of the formation of enclaves within the districts of Kanda and Nihonbashi for such specialists as carpenters, smiths, and dyers. The emergence of a consumer society that took place in Japan from about the middle of the Edo period in turn led to a specialization among carpenters, with some producing bentwood goods, others making fine screens and doors, and still others who constructed religious and palace architecture. Fine cabinet makers and joiners also emerged and are still active to this day.While fine cabinetry and joinery in Kyoto developed as a result of supplying the needs of the Imperial court and the tea ceremony, the style which still characterizes Edo joinery developed by meeting the requirements of the warrior classes, merchants and Kabuki actors resident in Edo. In essence this distinctive Edo style is expressed through sturdy construction and a brevity of form, while avoiding unnecessary ornamentation and maximizing the effects of an attractive grain. Perhaps the best and most highly acclaimed of all the woods used is the so-called shimakuwa, a mulberry from the island of Mikurajima.The range of goods produced today includes chests, desks, various kinds of stands and shelves. Boxes are also part of a repertoire which is completed by hibachi, items for the tea ceremony and pieces associated with the playing of Japanese music. There are now 23 firms with 39 staff, among whom 9 are government recognized Master Craftsmen perpetuating the reputation of this fine work.

大館曲げわっぱ

Odate Bentwood Work

木竹品

秋田県

Akita

関ヶ原の戦いで負けた豊臣方の武将であった佐竹義宣が、徳川幕府によって、それまでの領地であった水戸から秋田へ移転させられた時、秋田の領民の暮らしはとても貧しく、その日の食べ物に困る者さえあるくらいでした。
大館城主となった佐竹西家は、領内の豊富な森林資源を利用して貧しい状態を打開するため、下級武士たちに命じて、副業として曲げわっぱの製作を奨励しました。また農民には、年貢米の代わりとして、山から城下まで原木を運ばせたと言われています。製品は酒田・新潟・関東等へ運ばれました。

Satake Yoshinobu was a military commander who fought with Toyotomi Hideyoshi at the battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Hideyoshi was vanquished and Satake was ordered by the Tokugawa Shogunate to move from his former domain of Mito to Akita in the extreme north of Honshu. He found the people there were very poor and some did not even have enough to eat. As castellans of Odate castle, the western branch of Satake family set about trying to relieve the poverty of their people by using the rich supplies of timber to be found in the fief. First, low ranking warriors were ordered to make bentwood goods on a part-time basis. Then, instead of paying their annual tribute in rice, the people were made to fetch the wood required for this bentwood work down from the surrounding mountains. There was soon enough work to sell in such places as Sakata, Niigata and far off Edo and its environs.Full advantage is taken of the grain and scent of Akita's own supplies of cedar wood, which is also highly flexible. Exemplifying the concept of simple is beautiful, this craft makes the most of the fine grade timber with its fresh red and pale yellow coloring combined with its beautifully tight grain and lightness. A vast range of products is still being made by 10 nationally recognized Master Craftsmen, who are among the 60 employed by the 9 firms in and around Odate. They produce tubs for rice, water jugs, trays of various kinds, bento boxes, and even coffee cups and beer tankards. All are beautiful examples of a simple craft.

樺細工

Akita Cherry-Bark Work

木竹品

秋田県

Akita

樺細工は、18世紀末に、佐竹北家により、秋田県北部の阿仁地方から角館に技法が伝えられたのが始まりとされています。
佐竹北家の城主に手厚く保護を受けた樺細工は、下級武士の副業として広まりました。明治時代に入ると、禄を失った武士が、収入を得るために本格的に取り組んだことで、今日の原型と言える作品が作られるようになりました。

It seems that cherry-bark work goes back to the end of the 18th century, when the techniques were passed on to the people in Kakunodate by the Satake Kita-family from the Ani district in the north of Akita Prefecture. The production of cherry-bark goods was given the patronage of the feudal lord to which the Satake Kita- family was attached and was taken up by lower-ranking samurai, firstly as a part-time occupation. Then at the beginning of the Meiji period (1868-1912) this work became a major source of income for them after they lost their warrior status. They then started to produce the prototypes of today's cherry-bark goods.Made from the bark of wild cherry, this work cannot be found anywhere else in Japan. There are about twelve different types of bark including amekawa, chirashikawa and hibikawa, the choice of bark depending of the article being made. The variations of the bark mean that no two pieces are ever the same. Nearly always applied to a carcass, many different articles can be made using this very appealing natural material but one of the most effective celebrations of its qualities is for tea caddies. There are 11 government recognized Master Craftsmen among the total of 300 staff now employed by the 103 firms leading this small craft industry.