KOUGEI-EXPO

全国くらしの工芸展 11/25(金)〜11/27(日) 会場:サンドーム福井

庄川挽物木地

Shogawa Turnery

材料

富山県

Toyama

16世紀の末、現在の石川県南部を中心とした地域を支配していた加賀藩が使用する材木を、庄川の流れを利用して送るという、流木事業が始められました。
流木は庄川町地内の貯木場にたくわえられ、北陸における一大集散地となりました。
その豊富な木材を求めて、19世紀の後半に職人が庄川町でろくろ木地を商売にしたのが、庄川挽物木地の始まりと伝えられています。現在では34社が事業を行い、生産高において全国有数の産地となっています。

At the end of the 16th century, timber used by the Kaga clan, which governed the area mainly in the south of present-day Ishikawa prefecture, used the Shogawa river to float logs down stream. This is how the handling of timber began and the logs were stored in a pool within the district of Shogawa-cho, which became the largest collection point for timber in the Hokuriku region. Making use of this rich supply of timber, carcass turnery as a craft began here when a Echigoya Seiji started selling turned carcasses in Shogawa during the second half of the 19th century. Now this is one of the few areas in the country where there is such a high volume of production of this kind of goods.The qualities of each tree grown in the wild are of course different. Annual rings appear in various shapes and forms and while there are many variations in the appearance and character of a piece of wood, the unique coloring helps to set off the grain. The aim here has always been to find ways of providing a product preserving the inherent warmth of the wood. Today a large range of items are produced including tea trays, coasters, candy bowls, soup bowls, boxes for tea utensils, caddies, plates and large bowls. There are 34 companies engaged in this work employing 121 people, among whom are 15 government recognized Master Craftsmen.

播州毛鉤

Banshu Fishing Flies

諸工芸

Various crafts

兵庫県

Hyogo

江戸時代末期に京都から技法が導入され、農家の副業として守り育てられて来ました。時代とともに製品の完成度を高めて、優れた釣りの成果を生むまでに技術が向上しました。
明治中頃には水産博等に出品して数々の賞を受賞し、以後、その品質は多くの釣り師の認めるところとなりました。今日では国内の毛鉤の大部分を生産する産地として、業界の先頭に立っています。

The techniques of this craft were introduced to Banshu from Kyoto toward the end of the Edo period (1600-1868). Local farmers began making the hooks and flies in their spare time, preserving and developing the craft over the years, while gradually perfecting each type of hook to a level at which it would bring good results. Flies won a number of prizes at Fisheries Fairs held during the late 1800s and as a result, Banshu fishing flies earned the recognition of many fishermen.It is important when making a fly to consider the type of fish being pursued, the season, the weather, and the depth and chemistry of the water the fish inhabits. Consideration for these factors has led to the development of more than 1,000 different types of fly. Making one requires the utmost concentration but the result is a piece of grand illusion in the most alluring colors, perfectly mimicking an insect in the water. Today, Banshu leads the field as the main producer of the countries output of fishing flies, with 15 firms employing 48 staff, 6 of whom are government recognized Master Craftsmen.

京表具

Kyoto Art Mountings

諸工芸

Various crafts

京都府

Kyoto

始まりは平安時代に遡ります。当時、表具は経や書画に布地を貼って補強するためのものでした。それがその後、保存や鑑賞のために、書画等に布や紙等で縁取や裏打ち等をして、掛軸や額に仕立てたり、屏風や衝立、襖にする「表装」一般を扱うようになりました。
京表具のうち掛軸、巻物、額装は、床の間等の和室の装飾用として、また屏風や衝立、襖は部屋の仕切り、風よけ、目隠し用として一般家庭の日常生活に使われています。

Art mounting dates back to the Heian period (794-1185), when pieces of artwork, calligraphy and the Sutras were strengthened by backing them with fabric. Later, calligraphy and paintings were backed or edged with paper or fabric for display or to help protect them. Gradually mounting came into much more general use for fusuma, hanging scrolls and frames as well as for folding and single-leaf freestanding screens. Hanging scrolls, hand scrolls and frames are used to decorate the tokonoma or alcove in a traditional Japanese room; and fusuma, folding and single-leaf freestanding screens are used on a daily basis in the home as partitions, screens or simply to cutout draughts.Sustained by Kyoto's beautiful environment and the refined aesthetic taste of its people, the development of art mounting here was also help by the climate conditions of the Kyoto basin with its high levels of humidity. Mounting techniques which reflected the aesthetic taste of the tea masters were perfected with the appearance of the tokonoma and when the tea ceremony became popular from the end of the 16th century and on into the Edo period (1600-1868). Screens of many kinds are even today one of the main items made, along with the mounting of hanging scrolls and hand scrolls. Sustaining these age-old techniques are 406 firms employing 853 people of various skill, including 24 government recognized Master Craftsmen.

尾張七宝

Owari Cloisonne

諸工芸

愛知県

Aichi

尾張七宝の起こりは、江戸時代後期に、現在の名古屋市を中心とした地域にあたる尾張の梶常吉(かじつねきち)が作ったのが始まりとされ、常吉によって技術・技法が確立されました。
尾張七宝として確認できる作品としては、天保4年(1833年)の梶常吉作による七宝ぐい呑みが最も古いものとされています。

It was not until the latter part of the Edo period (1600-1868) that Owari cloisonne got its start. The area centered on present-day Nagoya was the domain of the Owari clan. The first pieces were made here and the skills and techniques of this craft gradually became established. The oldest piece of authenticated Owari cloisonne is a sake cup made in 1833.In a sense, cloisonne is a form of glazed ware utilizing the fact that enamels will melt under extreme heat, rather in the way that glazes for pottery melt in a kiln. The main difference is that metal is the base material of cloisonne. The birds, butterflies, flowers and plants depicted on Owari cloisonne give it its distinctive character. There are now 21 firms supporting 165 staff engaged in producing a variety of cloisonne flower vases, incense holders, dishes and jewelry boxes.

江戸木版画

Edo Mokuhanga

諸工芸

Various crafts

東京都

Tokyo

江戸木版画は、墨一色の版画の上に色を筆で彩色していくようになり、これらは丹絵、紅絵、漆絵として進歩してきましたが、色を板木で摺る工夫がなされ、二、三色の色摺版画(紅摺絵)ができました。さらに、明和2年(1765 年)には、金や銀まで摺り込み、中間色も木版で刷り上げることができるようになり、多色摺りのスタイルが確立されました。
江戸木版画の製造の技術・技法は江戸時代に確立し、その技術・技法は改良を重ねながら発展して今日まで継承され、東京都を中心として伝統的に製造されています。

Edo Mokuhanga are woodblock prints that began with a black print that was then colored with a brush.
They evolved into "tane", "benie", and "urushie", eventually resulting in a printing technique where the colors were applied to the wood print and printed directly, followed by two and three-color prints (benizurie). Further in 1765, gold and silver began being printed, and secondary colors also began to be printed, and the multicolored style was established.
The techniques and skills used in Edo Mokuhanga wood block printing were established in the Edo period, and these techniques have continued to be improved upon, carrying on the present day where they are still produced mainly in the Tokyo region.

京石工芸品

Kyoto Stone Carving

石・貴石

京都府

Kyoto

石と人間生活との関わり合いは、遠く石器時代から始まります。奈良時代後期、仏教の伝来によって石造文化が生まれました。
その後の石造美術の発展とともに、貴重な文化的石造工芸品が作り出されました。比叡山麓、白川の里からは良質の花崗岩(かこうがん)が切り出される等、材料にも恵まれた京石工芸品は、千年もの間文化の中心であった京都の土地柄に支えられて、他の地方には見られない石工芸の技術を築き上げ、現在にまで伝えています。

Although man's relationship with stone began long ago in the Stone Age, it was not until the end of the Nara period (710-794) when Buddhism was introduced into Japan that stone became more than just a utilitarian material. Gradually, as the art of stone work developed, pieces of stone craft of real cultural value appeared. Being blessed with fine raw materials such as the good quality granite available from the village of Shirakawa at the foot of Mount Hiei, Kyoto stone carving has been sustained by the very nature of the cultural of Kyoto, which has been at the center of Japanese culture for over a thousand years. Stone carving techniques, which cannot be found in any other part of the country, have been acquired here over the years and are still in use to this day.Almost everything that is made is for use in the traditional Japanese garden. A mason is responsible for carrying out all of the work on a piece, making each and everyone according to its function and form. Inevitably though, it is the stone lantern that has been an indispensable component of any traditional garden since the Momoyama period (1568-1600) in step with the fashion for tea. Besides lanterns and various kinds of tubs and pots, some pieces of sculpture are also made. The traditions of this ancient craft are being maintained by 84 firms employing 374 staff, 11 of whom are government recognized Master Craftsmen.

岡崎石工品

Okazaki Stone Carving

石・貴石

愛知県

Aichi


始まりは室町時代後期に遡ります。その後、安土桃山時代には、現在の愛知県にあった岡崎城主が、城下町の整備のため河内、和泉の石工を招き、石垣や堀を造らせました。
この石工たちが、その技術・技法に磨きをかけ春日型灯籠、六角雪見型等岡崎石工品の原型を作りました。19世紀の初めに29軒だった石屋は、19世紀の終わりには約50軒に増え、戦前、最盛期には350軒を数えましたが、最近は減少しつつあります。


The origins of this craft date back to the latter part of the Muromachi period (1391-1573). It was during the following Momoyama period (1573-1600), however, that the lord of Okazaki castle brought in skilled stone masons from Kawachi and Izumi to carry out some improvements to the surrounding town and had stone walls and moats built. As a way of perfecting their skills and techniques these masons carved Kasuga style lanterns and hexagonal flat-topped Yukimi or "snow viewing" lanterns and it was these that became the prototypes for Okazaki's own stone-carving craft. By the beginning of the 19th century there were 29 stone carving workshops and by the end of the same century there were 50. Before World War II at its peak the town boasted 350 workshops, a number which of late has declined somewhat.The principal item made is the stone lantern. They are an intricate composition of both line and surface embodying a simplicity of both linear and curvilinear beauty. To this is added highly skilled decorative carving providing a delicate elegance to this carved stone craft. Pagodas in miniature are also made as are receptacles for water or plants. There are now 22 firms employing 161 people sustaining this worthy stone craft.

真壁石燈籠

Makabe Stone Lanterns

石・貴石

茨城県

Ibaraki

茨城真壁地方は、質の良い花崗岩(かこうがん)が採れることから、古くから石を生活用具として加工、利用していました。
この地方の石材業の起こりは、室町時代末期に真壁町長岡地域一帯で始められた仏石作りであると伝えられています。真壁石燈籠として確認できるものとしては、真壁町の寺院境内にある、文政7年(1824年)に製造されたものが最も古いとされており、これを作った石工によって技術・技法が確立されました。

Good quality granite found in the Makabe area of Ibaraki Prefecture has been used to make a variety of useful articles since ancient times. The actual working of stone in the area began around the end of the Muromachi period (1333-1568) with the making of Buddhist stone articles around Nagaoka in Makabe-cho. The earliest confirmed Makabe stone lantern stands in the temple compound in Makabe-cho. It was made by Kubota Kichibei in 1824, and he was responsible for establishing the skills and techniques of the craft.Special features of these lightly colored lanterns are their superb craftsmanship, the light touch of the beautiful carving and their sense of weightiness. They provide traditional Japanese gardens with an added quality and elegance, their special features being accentuated further by the moss which tends to grow on the stone. Apart from garden items, lanterns and other items are also made for use at shrines and temples. There are now 42 firms employing 86 people, among whom there are 23 government recognized Master Craftsmen sustaining this essential craft.

赤間硯

Akama Inkstones

文具

山口県

Yamaguchi

赤間硯は鎌倉時代の初めに、鶴岡八幡宮に奉納されたという記録があります。江戸時代中期には各地で売り広められました。
毛利氏が藩を治めていた時代には、原料となる石が採れる山は御止山(おとめやま)として一般には入山を禁じられ、参勤交代の贈り物等として硯が必要になると、藩主の命令で採掘がされました。こうした事情から、長州藩の名産として簡単に手に入れることのできないものでした。

Records exist showing that an Akama inkstone was offered at the Tsuruoka Hachimangu Shrine in Kamakura at the beginning of the Kamakura period (1185-1333). By the middle of the Edo period (1600-1868) these inkstones were being sold up and down the country. By the time that Mori was leading the local clan, unauthorized people were prohibited from mining the stone from which these inkstones were made and should one be needed as a gift at such times at the Sankin Kotai, when feudal lords travelled to live in Edo, permission to mine the stone had to be given by the head of the clan. This made it quite difficult to obtain one of these much prized inkstones from the Choshu clan.Akama inkstones possess all the right qualities of a good inkstone. The stone is hard and it has a close grain. It is beautifully patterned and is soft enough to work. The hobo on which the ink stick is ground has a close grain helping to produce ink quickly and of the best quality in terms of color and luster. These inkstones are now being produced by 7 firms employing 15 people, 2 of whom are government recognized Master Craftsmen.

熊野筆

Kumano Brushes

文具

広島県

Hiroshima

江戸時代、農業だけでは生活が支えきれない農民の多くが、農閉期に現在の和歌山県にあたる紀州の熊野地方や、奈良県にあたる大和の吉野地方に出稼ぎに行き、故郷に帰る時に、それらの地方で作られた筆や墨を仕入れて行商を行っていました。そうしたことから熊野と筆の結び付きが生まれました。
江戸時代後期に、広島藩を治めていた藩主の浅野家の御用筆司(ごようふでし)の所で、筆作りの方法を身につけた熊野の住人が、村に戻って村民にその技法を伝えたのが熊野筆の始まりとされています。

During the Edo period (1600-1868), many farmers found life very difficult. When there was no farm work, peasants went off in search of work to the Kumano district in Kishu corresponding to present-day Wakayama and the Yoshino area of Yamato, which is now Nara Prefecture. On returning to their homelands they sold writing brushes and ink they had acquired from these places. Ultimately, this led to the making of brushes in Kumano. Toward the end of the Edo period, brushes were being made in a workshop set up by the Asano family, head of the Hiroshima clan. The techniques of brush making became a firmly established craft among the people and the handing down of these skills within the village marked the beginnings of Kumano brushes as they are known today.Many kinds of brushes for use in schools, for calligraphy, painting and even for makeup are being made by 134 firms employing 3,500 people, among whom are 18 government recognized Master Craftsmen.

播州そろばん

Banshu Abacus

文具

兵庫県

Hyogo

そろばんは室町時代の終り頃、中国から長崎を経由して大津に伝わりました。
安土桃山時代に、豊臣秀吉の三木城攻略時に、大津に逃れた住民が、そろばんの技法を習得し、地元に帰って製造を始めたのが播州そろばんの始まりと言われています。昭和35年には360万丁と最も多く生産されましたが、その後電卓の出現によって、その需要は減少しています。

Coming first from China, the abacus was brought to Otsu from Nagasaki toward the end of the Muromachi period (1392-1573). It was during the following Momoyama period (1573-1600), when Toyotomi Hideyoshi sieged Miki castle, that the people of this small castle town fled to nearby Otsu, where some learned how to make the abacus. When they finally returned to their homeland, they began making what became the Banshu abacus. The peak of production here was in 1960, when 3.6 million abacuses were made. Demand has gradually fallen since then due to the appearance of the electronic calculator. The abacus, however, still has value as it provides a much more graphic way of visualizing calculations, and as such still has a place in the curriculum of many schools, where in the past principals of education were "reading, writing and abacus". Some also believe that using an abacus can stimulate the brain and prevent senile dementia.Dense hardwoods such as ebony are used for the frame and boxwood and birch are used for the beads. The smooth operation of these abacuses is one of their special features but, the fineness and delicacy of the work, makes them works of art in wood. There are now 81 firms employing 197 staff, 12 of whom are government recognized Master Craftsmen.

豊橋筆

Toyohashi Brushes

文具

愛知県

Aichi

江戸時代後期に、現在の豊橋市にあたる地域を支配していた吉田藩の藩主が、京都の職人を、藩のために筆を作る御用筆匠(ごようふでしょう)として迎え、下級武士に副業として筆作りを奨励したのが始まりです。
明治初年、芯巻筆(しんまきふで)を改良した、現在の筆と同じ作りの水筆の製法で筆が作られるようになり、豊橋筆の基礎となりました。現在筆作りの職人375人が、伝統的技術・技法を受け継ぎ、筆作りに励んでいます。

Toyohashi is situated at the center of the area which was once ruled by the Yoshida clan. Toward the end of the 18th century, the leader of the clan brought in Suzuki Jinzaemon from Kyoto, and he began making brushes for the clan. Gradually lower ranking samurai started this work and this marked the true beginnings of the craft in Toyohashi. Toward the end of the 19th century, Haga Jirokichi promoted the making of a coreless brush called a suihitsu and the same brushes are still being made today. Jirokichi was also instrumental in giving the craft a firm base in the area, and established a scheme for the training of apprentices.Being a style of writing brush in general use, the market for Toyohashi's brushes has been greatly affected by the importing of cheaper brushes from China. A great deal of effort is therefore being made to produce top quality brushes to appeal to the Japanese user, in order to survive in a very competitive market. Today, 15 of the 370 people engaged by the 76 companies in the area are designated as Master Craftsman by the government, and various types of brushes for calligraphy and painting are still being made with unfailing diligence, following traditional methods and techniques.

阿波和紙

Awa Paper

和紙

徳島県

Tokushima

今から約1300年ほど前、忌部族という朝廷に仕えていた人たちが、麻やコウゾを植えて紙や布の製造を盛んにしたという記録が、9世紀の書物に見られ、ここに阿波和紙の歴史が始まります。
以来、忌部族の始祖である天日鷲命(あめのひわしのみこと)を紙の神として崇めまつることによってその技術が伝えられ、現在に至っています。

A 9th-century document confirms that the history of Awa paper goes back some 1,300 years to times when a family known as Inbe serving the Imperial court, was growing flax and paper mulberry and producing cloth and paper. Ever since then, the paper-making techniques of Awa paper have been handed down from one generation to the next in an act of reverent deification of Ame no Hiwashi no Mikoto, the originator of paper-making traditions within the Inbe family.With the kind of delicate texture and coloring that can only be achieved with a handmade paper, Awa paper is soft, supple and surprisingly strong. An indigo dyed paper is representative of the naturally dyed papers made, which rank among the finest of the art, craft and wrapping papers now produced by the 5 firms employing 58 people among whom there are 8 government recognized Master Craftsmen keeping alive the traditions and continuity of this fine paper.

京仏壇 京仏具

Kyoto Household Buddhist Altars / Kyoto Buddhist Paraphernalia

仏壇・仏具

京都府

Kyoto

仏壇は厨子(ずし)から変化したものですが、もっぱら武士階級のものとして用いられていました。
これが一般に広まったのは、江戸時代初期からで、徳川幕府が行った宗門改(しゅうもんあらため)によって、各家庭での仏壇を必要とする人々が増えたため、一般家庭用仏壇の生産が本格化したと考えられます。

Household Buddhist altars were a variation of miniature shrines called zushi and were originally used exclusively by the warrior classes. It is thought that the production of ordinary household altars began in earnest with an increase in the numbers of people requiring one at the beginning of the Edo period (1600-1868), when the Tokugawa Shogunate introduced new religious policies.Besides being home to the headquarters of some one hundred or so different sects, Kyoto has nearly 3,000 temples as well as countless national treasures and cultural assets. Kyoto Household Buddhist Altars are direct copies of the inner sanctuary of the main temple of each sect, faithfully reproduced in miniature. A great deal of pride is attached to the degree of quality and approach demanding a level of craftsmanship applied right down to the finest detail to make a craft object that is so indicative of the city and its craftspeople. Representing different individual skills, there are now 31 government recognized Master Craftsmen among the 1,960 staff now employed by 330 firms maintaining the making of these altars.

大阪浪華錫器

Osaka Naniwa Pewter Ware

金工品

大阪府

Osaka

錫器が日本に伝えられたのは、今から約1300年程前、遣隋使の手によるものと言われています。
鎌倉時代初期に栄西が現在の中国の宋に渡り、茶壷作り職人を連れて来たのが錫職人のルーツとも言われています。江戸時代の中期に大阪に産地が形成されました。

Pewter ware was first introduced to Japan some 1,300 years ago by envoys from China. Later during the early part of the Kamakura period (1185-1333), the Zen monk Eisai visited Sung dynasty China and returned with a maker of tea urns. His skills with pewter are said to mark the real beginning of this craft in Japan. It was not until the 18th century, however, that a production center was established in Osaka.Pewter is a very stable metal. It is ideal for such things as a sake flask as it does not affect the delicate flavors of this rice wine, and the taste of water kept in a pewter container is improved by an ionic action. It is also good for flower vases and especially good for the storage of such things as tea, which would deteriorate in anything less than an air-tight container due to high temperature and humidity. With 8 nationally recognized Master Craftsmen among the 21 employed, there are still 7 firms making a wide range of articles such as religious ornaments, and sake cups, expressive of this distinctive metal.

堺打刃物

Sakai Forged Blades

金工品

大阪府

Osaka

16世紀の中頃、ポルトガル人によって鉄砲、たばこが伝来しました。16世紀の後半には、たばこの葉を刻む「たばこ包丁」が堺で作られるようになり、徳川幕府は堺に「極印」という品質証明の印を与え、専売を許可したために、堺刃物の切れ味と名声は全国各地へと広がりました。
江戸時代中期には、出刃包丁が出現し、その後各種の包丁が作られるようになりました。

Guns and tobacco were introduced into Japan in the middle of the 16th century by the Portuguese. By the end of that century, small tobacco knives were being forged in Sakai and the Tokugawa Shogunate awarded the forgers of Sakai a special seal of approval and guarantee of their quality. Sakai was also granted exclusive selling rights and the reputation of the cutting edge of Sakai forged blades spread throughout the land as a result. Then in the middle of the Edo period (1600-1868), the deba-bocho or pointed knife appeared and was followed by knives of every description, mainly used in the preparation of food.Japanese cooks have a complete range of kitchen knives for every purpose and most of those are said to have Sakai forged blades. The special feature of these knives is the finely ground edge and point and their reputation is as good as ever. There are now 215 firms employing 1,236 people, among whom 28 are government recognized Master Craftsmen sustaining and leading this craft.

東京銀器

Tokyo Silversmithery

金工品

東京都

Tokyo

江戸時代中期に、彫金師の彫刻する器物の生地の作り手として、銀師(しろがねし)と呼ばれる銀器職人や、櫛、かんざし、神興(みこし)金具等を作る金工師と呼ばれる飾り職人が登場したことが「東京銀器」の始まりでした。
江戸でこれらの金工師が育った背景には、貨幣を作る金座・銀座の存在、また各大名が集まる政治経済、文化の中心であったことが挙げられます。

This craft began during the 18th century with the emergence of three kinds of skilled workers of precious metals. First there was the shirogane-shi, who fashioned articles that were then skillfully chased by masters of this technique; and then there were skilled metal workers who made such things as combs, hairpins (kanzashi) and the decorative metal fittings for the portable shrines or mikoshi. The gold and silver mints in Edo contributed significantly to raising the level of skills of such artisans. Moreover, Edo was the center of politics, finance and culture, and were feudal lords were required to live for long periods. Consequently, silversmithery in particular developed with their patronage. Nowadays, many fine articles are being produced, mostly to traditional patterns.A confluence of so many skills, Tokyo silversmithery is of the highest quality, the epitome of beauty and durable besides. Also, because it is not made of a harmful substance, it can be used for so many kinds of containers, ornaments and other everyday household articles. Both wrought and chased articles are made. There are silver tea caddies, sake flasks, flower vases, ornaments and many other small household articles being made by 131 firms employing 417 people, 36 of whom are government recognized Master Craftsmen.

山形鋳物

Yamagata Metal Casting

金工品

山形県

Yamagata

平安時代の中頃に、山形地方で起こった乱を治めるため、源頼義がこの地方を転戦しました。
その時、軍と行動をともにした鋳物職人が、山形市内を流れる川の砂と千歳公園あたりの土質が鋳物に最適であることを発見しました。これらの鋳物職人のうちの何人かがこの地に留まったことが山形鋳物の始まりとなりました。

In the middle of the Heian period (794-1185), Minamoto Yoriyoshi fought a number of battles in the Yamagata area in an effort to quell various uprisings. The metal casters, who were part and parcel of the army and operations, discovered that the quality of the sand in the river flowing through Yamagata city and the earth in present-day Chitose park were ideal for casting. Some of those casters settled in the area and became the founders of Yamagata metal casting.The tea ceremony is perhaps most representative of Japanese culture and many chagama, the pots for boiling water in during the tea ceremony are produced in Yamagata. The lightness, perfect shape and furthermore, the fine delicate surface of the iron kettles, the bronze vases, the iron cooking pots and ornaments cast here are the result of outstanding and well applied techniques used in the making of these traditional craft pieces. Today there are 22 firms employing 118 people, among whom there are 14 government recognized Master Craftsmen.

都城大弓

Miyakonojo Bows

木竹品

宮崎県

Miyazaki

鹿児島成(なり)の流れをくむ大弓で、江戸時代後期には盛んに作られていたことが記録に残っています。明治時代に入り、川内地区から来住した楠見親子が多くの弓作りの職人を養成しました。豊富な原材料に恵まれたこともあって、昭和初期には、東アジアにまで製品が売られるような大産地になりました。
戦後、低迷期がありましたが、最盛期には30人近くの弓作りの職人が活躍していました。現在でもわが国で唯一の産地として竹弓の9割を生産しています。

Closely connected with the history of Kagoshima, there are documents verifying that just after the middle of the 19th century, the making of Miyakonojo bows was a thriving local craft and by the end of the century, many bow makers had been instructed in the craft by two generations of the locally residing Kusumi family. Blessed with plentiful supplies of locally obtainable raw materials, the craft developed and by the 1920s bows were being sold in East Asia. Although there was a fall in demand after World War II, at the height of production there were some 30 bow makers active in the area. It is now the country's only production center for bows, 90% of all bamboo bows being made here.Following an established pattern, there are seven joints of bamboo on the forward face and six on the inner face. Although the shape may differ according to who makes it, a good bow is thought to be one with a perfect balance between its upper and lower portions, and one to which consideration has been given to its center of gravity and the distribution of weight after the arrow has been shot. With 9 government recognized Master Craftsmen among them, there are now 15 people employed by 11 firms continuing this long tradition.

紀州へら竿

Kishu Herazao

木竹品

和歌山県

Wakayama

紀州へら竿は、竿師の高い技術力で作られるへら鮒用の釣り竿です。
その製造技法は、明治10年代に大阪市で確立し、その後、原材料である高野竹(スズ竹)の産地に近い和歌山県橋本市に根付いて今日に至ります。昭和初期からのへら鮒釣りブームもあり、へら竿づくりは定着し、以後多くの釣り師に愛されてきました。

Kishu Herazao are fishing rods for catching crucian carp created by master rod craftsmen.
The production method was established in Osaka in the 1880s, and afterwards production was moved closer to the production area of the raw material used, sasamorpha borealis bamboo, and it became established there in Hashimoto City, Wakayama where it continues to the present day. In the 1920s and 30s, Japan experienced a crucian carp fishing boom, and herazao fishing rods became established, and they remain loved by fishermen today.

大阪泉州桐簞笥

Osaka Senshu Paulownia Chests

木竹品

大阪府

Osaka

農業をするかたわらに行われた、近所で採れるキハダやキリの木を使った、箱等の簡単な指物作りは、江戸時代中期に始まったと言われています。江戸時代後期から明治時代にかけて一大産地を形成しました。
キリの柾目(まさめ)を活かし、木釘と各種組み接ぎ(くみつぎ)技法を凝らした組立から、磨き着色に至るまで、伝統技法を脈々と伝えています。

Sometime during the 18th century, farmers started making boxes and other simple pieces of cabinetry during slack times of the year, using locally obtained paulownia (Paulownia Sieb. et Zucc.) and cork-tree (Phellodendron Rupr.). This "cottage industry" grew in stature by leaps and bounds after the middle of the 19th century and is still thriving. The traditions of this craft are kept alive by making full use of the quarter-saw boards of the paulownia, which are pieced together using wooden pins and a variety of joints, and then the surfaces are polished and lightly colored.Because the paulownia is air-dried and seasoned for one to two years prior to being made up, impurities tend not to appear on the surface. Solid boards of paulownia in excess of 20 mm thick are used, especially for the drawer fronts and doors. The wood for this is quarter-sawn in order to express the tightly packed grain of the wood and the finishing of these boards is particularly fine and demands a great deal of skill. There are 9 firms with 72 employees, and 18 nationally recognized Master Craftsmen who are protecting the time-honored techniques of a piece of furniture that, if treated well, should last for a hundred years or more.

大阪唐木指物

Osaka Fine Cabinetry

木竹品

大阪府

Osaka

唐木製品は、奈良時代の遣唐使によって持ち帰られました。珍しい木が使われていたため、この木を唐の木、唐木と呼んだことが唐木指物のいわれです。
江戸時代に入ると唐木材はすべて長崎に運び込まれ、大阪の薬種問屋がこれを引き受けていました。大阪の唐木製品は手作りで、伝統的な技術・技法を用いて、現在の生活様式に合うように工夫、改良されています。

Fine rarewood cabinetry was brought to Japan by the envoys who visited Tang dynasty China, hence the name of these woods in Japanese is literally "woods of Tang" or karaki. During the Edo period (1600-1868) when foreign intrusions were mostly shunned, rarewoods come into the country via Nagasaki and they were distributed through a wholesaler of medicines in Osaka. Currently, the same rarewoods and traditional techniques are being used to make not only traditional articles but also ones consistent with today's life-style such as cabinets, tables and boxes. The lasting qualities and general acknowledgment which fine pieces of furniture and cabinetry made of such rarewoods as sandalwood and ebony command is unfailing.The band of craftsmen skilled in working these woods is small, now numbering 170, with 21 nationally recognized Master Craftsmen among them. There are 43 firms situated in a number of areas making boxes, stands, desks and other finely crafted pieces of cabinetry.

大阪欄間

Osaka Transoms

木竹品

大阪府

Osaka

大阪欄間の始まりは17世紀初期で、大阪府内の聖神社や四天王寺等にその伝統技法のもととなる技術がみられます。
その後、江戸時代中期には商家を中心とした一般の住宅の茶の間、客間等の鴨居(かもい)の上に、光を取り入れたり風通しを良くするという実用性と、品格を表すための室内装飾として取り付けられました。

The origins of this craft date back to the beginning of the 17th century and the traditional woodworking skills that can be seen at Osaka's Hijiri Shrine and Shiteno-ji temple. Gradually during the 18th century, transoms were mainly introduced into merchant's houses not only for practical reasons of ventilation and lighting but also as a decorative element capable of raising the quality of interior space, especially in rooms where guest would be received.There are many types of transom. The bold carving of one type helps to bring out the best qualities of the grain of the special Yaku cedar from which it is made. A wonderful balance between the grain of paulownia and open-work in the design is achieved in another. Some are strict bars or a repeat of one element, others are grills. Still others are not much more than a frame but all are pieces of decoration with a function. Despite the fall in the number of traditional houses being built, they make screens, picture frames, and there are still 22 firms with 77 employees and 21 nationally recognized Master Craftsmen working on this fitting that is so special to the Japanese house interior.

京指物

Kyoto Joinery

木竹品

京都府

Kyoto

始まりは平安時代に遡ります。室町時代以後には専門の指物師が現れ、茶道文化の確立とともに、京指物も発展しました。
無垢板(むくいた)を用いた高級和家具の調度指物と、キリ、スギ、クワ、ケヤキ等の木の素材を生かした挽物(ひきもの)、曲物、板物等の茶道具指物があります。

Although this craft dates back to the Heian period (794-1185), specialist cabinet makers did not appear until during the Muromachi period (1392-1573), when this form of joinery developed in step with the ceremonial drinking of tea. Beside a range of the finest traditional household furniture made in solid wood, many pieces of turnery, bentwood work and items made from boards are also fashioned from such woods as paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), mulberry (Morus) and zelkova (Zelkova serrata).Perhaps the most representative of the woods used is paulownia. Being both moisture and heat resistant, products made of this wood represent the very best in household storage. Great care is taken with its preparation by ensuring that it is well seasoned and that any impurities are removed before the wood is worked. Apart from the many items which are made for use in association with the tea ceremony, some very finely crafted chest-of-drawers and wardrobes are also made. Freestanding shelves are also produced, sometimes for the display of fine china. In all, there are now 17 firms employing 80 people, 10 of whom are government recognized Master Craftsmen, all dedicated to sustaining this craft.

江戸指物

Edo Joinery

木竹品

東京都

Tokyo

江戸時代、徳川幕府は多くの職人を全国から呼び寄せて、神田・日本橋周辺に、大工町、鍛冶町、紺屋町などの職人町をつくり手工業を発達させました。
江戸時代の中頃には消費生活の発達につれて、大工職の仕事は楢物師(ひものし)、戸障子師、宮殿師などの職業に分かれていきました。その一つが指物師で、現在に続いています。

Many skilled individuals were encouraged to live and work in Edo (Tokyo) by the Shogunate right from the outset of the Edo period (1600-1868), and craft industries developed as a result of the formation of enclaves within the districts of Kanda and Nihonbashi for such specialists as carpenters, smiths, and dyers. The emergence of a consumer society that took place in Japan from about the middle of the Edo period in turn led to a specialization among carpenters, with some producing bentwood goods, others making fine screens and doors, and still others who constructed religious and palace architecture. Fine cabinet makers and joiners also emerged and are still active to this day.While fine cabinetry and joinery in Kyoto developed as a result of supplying the needs of the Imperial court and the tea ceremony, the style which still characterizes Edo joinery developed by meeting the requirements of the warrior classes, merchants and Kabuki actors resident in Edo. In essence this distinctive Edo style is expressed through sturdy construction and a brevity of form, while avoiding unnecessary ornamentation and maximizing the effects of an attractive grain. Perhaps the best and most highly acclaimed of all the woods used is the so-called shimakuwa, a mulberry from the island of Mikurajima.The range of goods produced today includes chests, desks, various kinds of stands and shelves. Boxes are also part of a repertoire which is completed by hibachi, items for the tea ceremony and pieces associated with the playing of Japanese music. There are now 23 firms with 39 staff, among whom 9 are government recognized Master Craftsmen perpetuating the reputation of this fine work.

大館曲げわっぱ

Odate Bentwood Work

木竹品

秋田県

Akita

関ヶ原の戦いで負けた豊臣方の武将であった佐竹義宣が、徳川幕府によって、それまでの領地であった水戸から秋田へ移転させられた時、秋田の領民の暮らしはとても貧しく、その日の食べ物に困る者さえあるくらいでした。
大館城主となった佐竹西家は、領内の豊富な森林資源を利用して貧しい状態を打開するため、下級武士たちに命じて、副業として曲げわっぱの製作を奨励しました。また農民には、年貢米の代わりとして、山から城下まで原木を運ばせたと言われています。製品は酒田・新潟・関東等へ運ばれました。

Satake Yoshinobu was a military commander who fought with Toyotomi Hideyoshi at the battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Hideyoshi was vanquished and Satake was ordered by the Tokugawa Shogunate to move from his former domain of Mito to Akita in the extreme north of Honshu. He found the people there were very poor and some did not even have enough to eat. As castellans of Odate castle, the western branch of Satake family set about trying to relieve the poverty of their people by using the rich supplies of timber to be found in the fief. First, low ranking warriors were ordered to make bentwood goods on a part-time basis. Then, instead of paying their annual tribute in rice, the people were made to fetch the wood required for this bentwood work down from the surrounding mountains. There was soon enough work to sell in such places as Sakata, Niigata and far off Edo and its environs.Full advantage is taken of the grain and scent of Akita's own supplies of cedar wood, which is also highly flexible. Exemplifying the concept of simple is beautiful, this craft makes the most of the fine grade timber with its fresh red and pale yellow coloring combined with its beautifully tight grain and lightness. A vast range of products is still being made by 10 nationally recognized Master Craftsmen, who are among the 60 employed by the 9 firms in and around Odate. They produce tubs for rice, water jugs, trays of various kinds, bento boxes, and even coffee cups and beer tankards. All are beautiful examples of a simple craft.

樺細工

Akita Cherry-Bark Work

木竹品

秋田県

Akita

樺細工は、18世紀末に、佐竹北家により、秋田県北部の阿仁地方から角館に技法が伝えられたのが始まりとされています。
佐竹北家の城主に手厚く保護を受けた樺細工は、下級武士の副業として広まりました。明治時代に入ると、禄を失った武士が、収入を得るために本格的に取り組んだことで、今日の原型と言える作品が作られるようになりました。

It seems that cherry-bark work goes back to the end of the 18th century, when the techniques were passed on to the people in Kakunodate by the Satake Kita-family from the Ani district in the north of Akita Prefecture. The production of cherry-bark goods was given the patronage of the feudal lord to which the Satake Kita- family was attached and was taken up by lower-ranking samurai, firstly as a part-time occupation. Then at the beginning of the Meiji period (1868-1912) this work became a major source of income for them after they lost their warrior status. They then started to produce the prototypes of today's cherry-bark goods.Made from the bark of wild cherry, this work cannot be found anywhere else in Japan. There are about twelve different types of bark including amekawa, chirashikawa and hibikawa, the choice of bark depending of the article being made. The variations of the bark mean that no two pieces are ever the same. Nearly always applied to a carcass, many different articles can be made using this very appealing natural material but one of the most effective celebrations of its qualities is for tea caddies. There are 11 government recognized Master Craftsmen among the total of 300 staff now employed by the 103 firms leading this small craft industry.

川連漆器

Kawatsura Lacquer Ware

漆器

秋田県

Akita

鎌倉時代にこの地方を支配していた領主の弟が、地元の山から切り出されたブナの木や漆を利用して、武具に漆を塗ることを内職として家臣に命じたのが始まりとされています。
本格的に椀作りが始まったのは江戸時代中期からで、後期には今の川連、大館、三梨の3地区を中心に発展し、一般生活用品の産地として栄えました。

The beginnings of this craft go back to the Kamakura period (1185-1333), when the younger brother of the lord of the fief who ruled this area, ordered the retainers to take up lacquering pieces of armor and weaponry as a job, using locally tapped lacquer and Japanese beech cut from the mountains in the area. The making of bowls began in earnest in the middle of the Edo period (1600-1868) and by the end of the period work was concentrated on the three districts of Kawatsura in what is now Inakawa-cho, Odate and Minashi and the making of everyday pieces of household goods flourished in what had become a production center.The carcasses of all the pieces are made of wood on to which natural lacquer is applied. There is no one particular feature that characterizes this ware but, because emphasis is placed on the undercoating to produce a very hard finish, it is extremely robust and is also reasonably priced. A wide variety of products are produced ranging from bowls, plates, trays and stacking boxes up to items of furniture. There are 177 firms employing 620 people, among whom 38 are government recognized Master Craftsmen all dedicated to the perpetuation of this fine japanned craft.

津軽塗

Tsugaru Lacquer Ware

漆器

青森県

Aomori

津軽塗の始まりは、江戸時代初期に遡り、津軽藩の藩主にめしかかえられた、漆器作りの職人が始めたと伝えられています。
津軽塗が産業として形を整えたのは、明治時代初頭で、江戸時代に積み重ねられた伝統技術を土台にして発展しました。その後も多くの工人たちが創意工夫を凝らし、技術を磨き、今日の津軽塗を築き上げました。

The making of this ware dates back to the beginning of the 17th century, when the fourth generation of leaders of the Tsugaru clan engaged craftsmen skilled in the making of lacquer ware. A production center became established toward the end of the 19th century and the craft developed from the traditional skills which had been acquired over the preceding period of approximately 300 years. The continual process of refinement of techniques and the original ideas developed by the many craftsmen and women since then, are the sum total of the craft today.Centered on Hirosaki in Aomori Prefecture, no other traditional forms of lacquer ware are produced any further north in Japan. Inevitably there is a warmth and charm about this craft that is missing from a machine made product. A number of distinctive techniques are used. The one called nanako-nuri has the stylish feel of the kind of fine patterns found on some kimono cloths, whereas monsha-nuri has an elegant modern feel with its mat black ground. With 31 government recognized Master Craftsmen among the 643 employed, there are now 173 firms engaged in the making of this fine craft lacquer ware. They produce pieces of furniture including tables, various pieces of tableware as well as fine pieces to be used in the tea ceremony. Trays and chopsticks are as finely produced as any other item and flower vases, too, glow with the fine traditions of this craft.

波佐見焼

Hasami Ware

陶磁器

長崎県

Nagasaki

16世紀末に、大村藩主が、豊臣秀吉の朝鮮出兵に参加し、帰国する時に連れてきた朝鮮の陶工によって始められたとされています。
江戸時代の初期には磁器が焼かれるようになり、茶碗や皿の他、徳利等の日用品が生産されました。中でも厚手の染付の茶碗は、大阪の船着場で船上の人々に酒や食事を売る食器として使われ、「くらわんか碗」として良く知られていました。

At the end of the 16th century, the feudal lord of the Omura clan accompanied Toyotomi Hideyoshi on one of his campaigns to the Korean Peninsular. On his return he brought back some Korean potters with him and they began making pottery in Hasami. By the beginning of the 17th century porcelain was being made and besides such things as cups and plates, various kinds of containers such as sake flasks were also being produced. Of all that was being made, the heavily over-glazed teacups met with particular favor among those on the boats around the piers of Osaka.The degree of detail, the cobalt blue motifs, and the beautiful translucent quality of the porcelain are what makes Hasami ware so special. It is also very reasonably priced and designs have been adapted over the years, so that now a great variety of items are offered, some of which are traditional while others are modern in character. With 30 government recognized Master Craftsmen among their ranks, 2,500 people are employed by the 120 firms still producing this attractive porcelain.

伊万里・有田焼

Imari-Arita Ware

陶磁器

佐賀県

Saga

16世紀末の豊臣秀吉による朝鮮出兵に参加していた佐賀藩主が、朝鮮から連れ帰った陶工の李参平によって、有田泉山に磁器の原料である陶石が発見されたのが伊万里・有田焼の始まりです。
このとき焼かれたものが、日本で最初の磁器であると言われています。
現在、伊万里・有田焼と呼ばれている磁器は、当時伊万里港を積み出し港としたため、伊万里焼とも呼ばれました。青一色で絵付けをした染付から、色鮮やかな上絵付けをしたものまで、色々な表現があります。その様式には古伊万里、柿右衛門、金襴手、鍋島等があり、とりわけ柿右衛門様式や、古伊万里様式の磁器は、その美しさでヨーロッパの人々を魅了しました。伊万里・有田焼は、江戸時代にオランダ商館を通じて大量に輸出されました。

The origins of Imari-Arita ware date back to the end of the 16th century when the Saga clan, which had been involved in Toyotomi Hideyoshi's campaigns in Korea, brought back the potter, Li Sanpei who discovered porcelain stone at Mount Arita Izumi, in northern Kyushu. The porcelain that was subsequently made there was the first to be produced anywhere in Japan and was originally called Imari ware, simply because it was shipped through the port of Imari.There are a number of different qualities ranging from a simple blue and white ware to pieces over-glazed with brilliant colors. Out of the number of styles including Koimari, Kakiemon, Kinrande and Nabesima, it was the beauty of the Koimari and Kakiemon porcelains which really appealed to people in Europe. In fact, during the Edo period (1600-1868), large quantities of Imari-Arita ware was exported through the trading facilities retained exclusively by the Dutch in Japan.Today as in the past, many fine pieces of Japanese and Western tableware are being produced along side some decorative items. Inevitably, however, it is the brilliance of the enamels and the beautiful white surfaces as well as its practicality, which continue to characterize Japan's most famous porcelain. There are now 159 firms employing 2,886 people among whom there are 72 government recognized Master Craftsmen maintaining the heritage of this ware.

九谷焼

Kutani Ware

陶磁器

石川県

Ishikawa

九谷の鉱山から陶石が発見されたことと、加賀藩の職人が、今の佐賀県有田町で磁器作りの技術を学んで来たことによって、17世紀の半ば頃、九谷の地で始められたのが古九谷焼(こくたにやき)です。古九谷は加賀百万石文化の、大らかさときらびやかさを合わせ持つ、独特の力強い様式美を作り上げましたが、17 世紀の終わり頃突然作られなくなってしまいました。その後、19世紀に入ると再び九谷焼が焼かれるようになりました。
それが再興九谷です。春日山窯の木米(もくべい)風、かつての古九谷の再興をめざした吉田屋窯、赤絵細描画の宮本窯、金襴手(きんらんで)の永楽(えいらく)窯等数多くの窯が現れ、それぞれ特有の画風を作り出し、九谷焼の産業としての地位を築きました。

The first porcelain to be produced in the Kutani area was in the 17th century, when a member of the Kaga clan, Goto Saijiro, who had studied the techniques of making porcelain in Arita in northern Kyushu, set up a kiln making Kokutani ware, a suitable porcelain clay having been discovered in the area. While Kokutani or "old Kutani" ware combined the generosity and splendor of the culture of the Kaga clan, it developed into a unique form of porcelain with a strength and boldness all its own. At the end of the 17th century, however, production suddenly ceased. Firing did not begin again until the beginning of the 19th century, when the revival of Kutani ware was produced. Many different kilns appeared each with their own unique design style helping to establish this production center. There was the Mokubei style of the Kasugayama kiln, the Yoshida kiln which tried to echo Kokutani ware, the fine drawing in red of the Miyamoto kiln and the red and gold highly figured designs of the Eiraku kiln.The true intrinsic quality of Kutani is its multi-colored over-glaze enamel images. It is characterized by its use of heavily overlaid Japanese pigments, namely red, green, yellow, purple and prussian blue, and bold outlining. What is perhaps unique to Kutani is the way that the enamels appear even more brilliant because of the restrained coloring of its slightly bluish ground. Various piece of tableware are now made in a number of Kutani styles, along with flower vases, some ornaments and beautifully adorned sake flasks. The world famous porcelain is produced by 400 firms employing 1,800 staff, among whom there are 49 government recognized Master Craftsmen with the responsibility of heading this craft.

京友禅・京小紋

Kyoto Yuzen Dyeing / Kyoto Fine-Pattern Dyeing

染色

京都府

Kyoto

京友禅
染色技法は8世紀から伝わり、手描友禅は江戸時代に京都の絵師宮崎友禅斉によって確立されたと伝えられています。扇絵師として人気の高かった宮崎友禅斉が、自分の画風をデザインに取り入れ、模様染めの分野に生かしたことで「友禅染め」が生まれました。
色数が多く絵画調の模様を着物に染める友禅染は、町人文化の栄えた江戸時代の中期に盛んに行われるようになりました。明治時代には、型紙によって友禅模様を染める「写し友禅染め」が開発されました。京小紋
京小紋の始まりは、基本となる型紙が作られた1200年前に遡ります。室町時代に起きた応仁の乱の後、様々な絹織物が生産されると辻ヶ花染や茶屋染が発達し、京都の堀川を中心として染色の職人町が出来ました。
上杉謙信の紋付小紋帷子(もんつきこもんかたびら)や徳川家康の小花紋小紋染胴服(こばなもんこもんぞめどうふく)等は、小紋の技法を駆使して作られています。この頃に、防染糊を置いたあと引染めする小紋の技術が完成されました。

Kyoto Yuzen DyeingAlthough dyeing techniques had existed since the 8th century, it is said that the yuzen technique of painting dye directly onto cloth was established by Miyazaki Yuzensai, a popular fan painter living in Kyoto toward the end of the 17th century. He introduced his own style of painting as a way of rendering pattern and this led to the birth of this handpainted dyeing technique. A multicolored yuzen was used to apply painterly designs to kimono cloths and grew in stature from the middle of the 18th century as merchant culture flourished. In the Meiji period (1868-1912), utsushi yuzen was developed using stencils to create these distinctive designs.It would not be an exaggeration to say that Kyoto yuzen, with its rich variety of motifs drawn from nature has become synonymous with the Japanese kimono. And, despite an extensive use of color, there is still within the noble tenor of the designs a special aesthetic quality that has been nurtured over the thousand years of the history of Kyoto. There are now 253 government recognized Master Craftsmen among the 13,695 employed by the 2,280 firms sustaining this elegant craft.Kyoto Fine-Pattern DyeingKyoto fine-pattern dyeing dates back more than 1,200 years, when the all-essential stencil papers were first made. After the Onin War which occurred during the Muramachi period (1333-1568), a number of different kinds of silk cloths were produced. This led to the development of two forms of stencil dyeing, tsujigahana and chaya-zome around the area of Horikawa in Kyoto and became a dyeing center. Fine-pattern dyeing can be found on a number of important garments includin
g a coat belonging to Uesugi Kenshin bearing his crest, and on a waistcoat worn by Tokugawa Ieyasu also bearing his crest. It was about this time that rice-paste resist techniques were perfected.This form of fine-pattern dyeing was a method of stencil dyeing small patterns in a single color on such garments as a kamishimo, the ceremonial robe worn by the warrior classes. These days just as in the past fine patterns are still being dyed using stencil papers but much bolder western florals have now been added to its repertoire. Cloth is mainly produced for kimono and coats these days, and 121 firms employing 605 staff of which 37 are government recognized Master Craftsmen, still maintain the traditional techniques of this ancient craft.

本場大島紬

Oshima Pongee

織物

鹿児島県

宮崎県

Kagoshima Miyazaki

奄美における大島紬の始まりは、7世紀頃に遡ります。産地が形成されたのは18世紀初期のことで、その後、技法は鹿児島にも伝わりました。絣模様は締め機(しめはた)という独特の機を用いて作られます。糸を染める「泥染め」の技法は特に有名です。
紬のルーツは、遠くインドでうまれたイカットという絣織り(かすりおり)だと言われており、イカットが、スマトラ、ジャワからスンダ列島一帯に広がりを見せた頃に、奄美大島にも伝わったと言われています。

The origins of this cloth woven on the Amami islands near Okinawa dates back to the 7th century. It was not until the beginning of the 18th century, however, that the craft took on the guise of an industry and its techniques were subsequently handed on to those working in Kagoshima Prefecture. The ikat or kasuri patterns are achieved on a special loom called a shimehata. And the dyeing of the yarn with mud is especially famous. The origins of this cloth are said to go back to the ikat weaves that originated in far off India and when this technique spread through Sumatra, Java and on through the East Indies, it was also brought to the Amami islands.This distinctive, beautifully fine ikat patterned cloth has a restrained character, being dyed with a colorant derived from a member of the rose family called sharinbai (Rhaphiolepis umbellata) and mud. There are now 11,908 people engaged in this work managed by 748 firms. There are 141 government recognized Master Craftsmen among those at work.

西陣織

Nishijin Textiles

織物

京都府

Kyoto

西陣という名は、室町時代の応仁の乱の時、西軍が本陣とした場所に、乱の後、職人が集まって織物をしたことから付けられました。織物の歴史としては、平安時代以前に秦氏によってもたらされた織技術にまで遡ることができます。西陣織は宮廷文化を中心に、織文化の担い手として発展してきました。

The name Nishijin was given to these textiles because weavers settled in the area which had been the headquarters of the west camp or Nishijin at the time of the Onin War. Lasting eleven years, these hostilities took place during the Muromachi period (1392-1573) from 1467 to 1477, when lords from many provinces divided into east and west factions. The history of Nishijin textiles themselves, however, can be traced back to weaving techniques fostered by the Hata family before the Heian period (794-1185), and this accumulation of skills developed as a weaving art centered on the culture of the imperial court in Kyoto.Nishijin textiles are yarn dyed figured cloths made in relatively small amounts but have the distinction of being able to offer a wide variety of different products, including a tightly woven tapestry cloth, damask, brocade, ikat, and pongee. The multicolored figured cloths in particular boast a rich and dazzling use of fine yarns to produce equally rich patterns. Many of these are made into kimono or obi, and tapestry. There are now 1,759 firms employing 22,258 people, among whom there are 329 government recognized Master Craftsmen sustaining one of Japan's most distinguished crafts.

村山大島紬

Murayama Oshima Fabrics

織物

東京都

Tokyo

村山大島紬の始まりは、江戸時代後期と言われています。
1920年頃、正藍染め(しょうあいぞめ)による錦織物の「村山紺絣」と玉繭による絹織物の「砂川太織(ふとおり)」の2つが合流して、絹織物としての村山大島紬が生産の中心となりました。この素晴らしい品質や丈夫さが高く評価され、東京都指定無形文化財として認められています。

While the history of this kimono cloth only seems to date back to the middle of the 19th century, it was in 1920 that the techniques associated with two different cloths were combined to produce the silk cloth known as Murayama Oshima pongee. One of these was an indigo dyed, figured ikat called Murayama Kongasuri, and the other was a silk cloth called Sagawa Futoori woven from a dupion thread. Its sheer quality and durability have always given Murayama Oshima pongee a large following and it has been recognized by Metropolitan Tokyo as an intangible cultural property.Kimono made of this light comfortable cloth is often handed down from mother to daughter and on to granddaughter, and the unfailing traditions and quality of this cloth are still recognized today. With 48 firms and 88 working on the cloth now, it is still a thriving industry. And 26 nationally recognized Master Craftsmen among those doing the work make a significant contribution to the continuance of this craft.